United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Protecting People and the Environment

Confirmatory Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis to Support Specific Success Criteria in the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Models—Byron Unit 1, Chapters 1 to 8 - Appendices A to C (NUREG-2187, Volume 1)

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Publication Information

Manuscript Completed: May 2015
Date Published:
January 2016

Prepared by:
J. Corson,1 D. Helton,1 M. Tobin,1 A. Bone1
M. Khatib-Rahbar,2 A. Krall2
L. Kozak3
R. Buell4

1Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Washington, DC 20555-0001

2Energy Research Inc.
P.O. Box 2034
Rockville, MD 20847-2034

3Region III
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
2443 Warrenville Road, Suite 210
Lisle, IL 60532-4352

4Idaho National Laboratory
P.O. Box 1625
Idaho Falls, ID 83415

Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Washington, DC 20555-0001

Availability Notice


This report extends the work documented in NUREG-1953, "Confirmatory Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis to Support Specific Success Criteria in the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Models-Surry and Peach Bottom" to the Byron Station, Unit 1. Its purpose is to produce an additional set of best-estimate thermal-hydraulic calculations that can be used to confirm or enhance specific success criteria (SC) for system performance and operator timing found in the agency's probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tools. Along with enhancing the technical basis for the Agency's independent standardized plant analysis risk (SPAR) models, these calculations are expected to be a useful reference to model end-users for specific regulatory applications (e.g., the Significance Determination Process). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission selected Unit 1 of the Byron Station for this study because it is generally representative of a group of four-loop Westinghouse plants with large, dry containment designs.

This report first describes major assumptions used in this study, including the basis for using a core damage (CD) surrogate of 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit (1,204 degrees Celsius) peak cladding temperature (PCT). The justification for this PCT is documented in NUREG/CR-7177, "Compendium Of Analyses To Investigate Select Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment End-State Definition And Success Criteria Modeling Issues." The major plant characteristics for Byron Unit 1 are then described, in addition to the MELCOR model used to represent the plant. Finally, the report presents the results of MELCOR calculations for selected initiators and compares these results to SPAR SC, the licensee's PRA sequence timing and SC, or other generic studies.

The study results provide additional timing information for several PRA sequences, confirm many of the existing SPAR model modeling assumptions, and provide a technical basis for a few specific SPAR modeling changes. Potential SPAR model changes supported by this study include:

  • Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SLOCA) Sequence Timing for Alignment of Sump Recirculation—For sequences where operator cooldown is credited as an alternative to high-pressure recirculation (HPR), the SPAR success criteria related to containment cooling could be enhanced by requiring one containment fan cooler to prevent containment spray actuation. Avoiding spray actuation extends the time available prior to refueling water storage tank depletion and allows the operators to successfully depressurize the plant using the post-LOCA procedures for cases when HPR is not available.

  • SLOCA Success Criteria for Steam Generator (SG) Depressurization and Condensate Feed—Action to depressurize the SGs early and align condensate feed is a candidate for inclusion in the SPAR model. This would provide an additional success path for a loss of auxiliary feedwater event. If this is done, hotwell refill or alignment of alternate feedwater later in the scenario would also need to be modeled. Early depressurization to achieve condensate feed was not found to require primary-side depressurization actions (e.g., opening a power-operated relief valve (PORV)).

  • SLOCA Success Criteria for Primary Side Bleed and Feed (B&F)—These calculations have demonstrated a potential conservatism that can be removed from the applicable SPAR models. It is proposed that the SC for SLOCA B&F be changed from (one safety injection (SI) or centrifugal charging pump (CCP) and two PORVs) to (one SI pump and two PORVs) or (one CCP and one PORV). In other words, for SLOCAs the requirement for availability of a second PORV can be removed when a CCP is available.

  • Loss of DC Bus-111 – Unavailable Diesel-Driven Auxiliary Feedwater, and Subsequent Primary Side B&F—These calculations are generally representative of non-loss-of-coolant accident (non-LOCA) B&F situations and have demonstrated a potential improvement that can be implemented in the Byron SPAR model. It is proposed that the SC for non-LOCA B&F be changed from (one SI or CCP and two PORVs) to (one CCP and one PORV). In other words, the same one CCP and one PORV enhancement as above is credited, but credit is eliminated for cases with no CCP available. This initiator was chosen because it was qualitatively felt to be more restrictive than those scenarios categorized as general transients in the PRA, and thus the conclusions are believed to be applicable to those initiators as well. Note that the applicability of the loss of DC bus SC may vary, (e.g., due to the unique reactor coolant pump trip situation that this initiator creates) and should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis before implementation for other plant models.

  • SGTR– Spontaneous Steam Generator Tube Rupture with No Operator Action—For sequences with successful high-pressure injection (HPI) and auxiliary feedwater, but with steam generator isolation having failed, an additional success path or additional recovery credit may be justifiable pending additional consideration of closely-related accident sequence and human reliability modeling assumptions.

  • Medium-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (MLOCA) – Injection SC— For breaks in the lower half of the MLOCA range, it was found that an early operator-induced depressurization based on the Functional Restoration Procedure (FRP) for inadequate core cooling would be needed to avoid core damage if HPI fails. The time available to implement these actions following the FRP entry criterion being met could be short. The accident sequence modeling and human reliability analysis associated with secondary-side cooldown for these situations (MLOCA with HPI failed) should be reviewed.

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