§ 71.71 Normal conditions of transport.

(a) Evaluation. Evaluation of each package design under normal conditions of transport must include a determination of the effect on that design of the conditions and tests specified in this section. Separate specimens may be used for the free drop test, the compression test, and the penetration test, if each specimen is subjected to the water spray test before being subjected to any of the other tests.

(b) Initial conditions. With respect to the initial conditions for the tests in this section, the demonstration of compliance with the requirements of this part must be based on the ambient temperature preceding and following the tests remaining constant at that value between -29°C (-20°F) and +38°C (+100°F) which is most unfavorable for the feature under consideration. The initial internal pressure within the containment system must be considered to be the maximum normal operating pressure, unless a lower internal pressure consistent with the ambient temperature considered to precede and follow the tests is more unfavorable.

(c) Conditions and tests.

(1) Heat. An ambient temperature of 38°C (100°F) in still air, and insolation according to the following table:


Form and location of surface Total insolation for a 12-hour period
(g cal/cm2)
Flat surfaces transported horizontally;
  Base None
  Other surfaces 800
Flat surfaces not transported horizontally 200
Curved surfaces 400

(2) Cold. An ambient temperature of -40°C (-40°F) in still air and shade.

(3) Reduced external pressure. An external pressure of 25 kPa (3.5 lbf/in2) absolute.

(4) Increased external pressure. An external pressure of 140 kPa (20 lbf/in2) absolute.

(5) Vibration. Vibration normally incident to transport.

(6) Water spray. A water spray that simulates exposure to rainfall of approximately 5 cm/h (2 in/h) for at least 1 hour.

(7) Free drop. Between 1.5 and 2.5 hours after the conclusion of the water spray test, a free drop through the distance specified below onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected.

Criteria for Free Drop Test (Weight/Distance)

Package weight Free drop distance
Kilograms (Pounds) Meters (Feet)
Less than 5,000 (Less than 11,000) 1.2 (4)
5,000 to 10,000 (11,000 to 22,000) 0.9 (3)
10,000 to 15,000 (22,000 to 33,100) 0.6 (2)
More than 15,000 (More than 33,100) 0.3 (1)

(8) Corner drop. A free drop onto each corner of the package in succession, or in the case of a cylindrical package onto each quarter of each rim, from a height of 0.3 m (1 ft) onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface. This test applies only to fiberboard, wood, or fissile material rectangular packages not exceeding 50 kg (110 lbs) and fiberboard, wood, or fissile material cylindrical packages not exceeding 100 kg (220 lbs).

(9) Compression. For packages weighing up to 5000 kg (11,000 lbs), the package must be subjected, for a period of 24 hours, to a compressive load applied uniformly to the top and bottom of the package in the position in which the package would normally be transported. The compressive load must be the greater of the following:

(i) The equivalent of 5 times the weight of the package; or

(ii) The equivalent of 13 kPa (2 lbf/in2) multiplied by the vertically projected area of the package.

(10) Penetration. Impact of the hemispherical end of a vertical steel cylinder of 3.2 cm (1.25 in) diameter and 6 kg (13 lbs) mass, dropped from a height of 1 m (40 in) onto the exposed surface of the package that is expected to be most vulnerable to puncture. The long axis of the cylinder must be perpendicular to the package surface.

[81 FR 86910, Dec. 2, 2016]

Page Last Reviewed/Updated Wednesday, March 24, 2021