Fire Protection Program for Fuel Cycle Facilities
Fuel cycle facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) include facilities for conversion of yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride (UF6), enrichment of UF6 to increase the concentration of uranium-235 (U235), and fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel (a combination of uranium and plutonium oxides) from enriched UF6. At such facilities, two principal risks to health and safety are nuclear criticality events and the release/dispersal of hazardous chemicals and radioactive material as a result of a fire or explosion.
To minimize the occurrence of fires, and mitigate the consequences of those that do occur, the NRC administers a fire protection program for fuel cycle facilities. This program encompasses regulations, guidance, and related licensing and oversight activities (including reliability assessments and modeling), specifically designed for fuel cycle facilities. In addition, the NRC has established special requirements for the proposed mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. Unlike other fuel fabrication facilities, the MOX facility is designed to produce light-water reactor fuel by recycling plutonium that has been secured through international nuclear disarmament agreements. Consequently, the NRC has established fire protection measures to maintain "dynamic confinement" of airborne hazards. Specifically, these measures involve the use of ventilation systems equipped with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, during both normal operation and accident conditions.
For additional detail, see the following pages:
- Fire Risks for Fuel Cycle Facilities
- Fire Protection Regulations and Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facilities
- Types of Fire Protection Measures for Fuel Cycle Facilities
- Fire Protection Activities for Fuel Cycle Facilities