United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Protecting People and the Environment

§ 34.3 Definitions.

ALARA (acronym for "as low as is reasonably achievable") means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits specified in 10 CFR Part 20 as is practical consistent with the purpose for which the licensed activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest.

Annual refresher safety training means a review conducted or provided by the licensee for its employees on radiation safety aspects of industrial radiography. The review may include, as appropriate, the results of internal inspections, new procedures or equipment, new or revised regulations, accidents or errors that have been observed, and should also provide opportunities for employees to ask safety questions.

Associated equipment means equipment that is used in conjunction with a radiographic exposure device to make radiographic exposures that drives, guides, or comes in contact with the source, (e.g., guide tube, control tube, control (drive) cable, removable source stop, "J" tube and collimator when it is used as an exposure head.

Becquerel (Bq) means one disintegration per second.

Certifying Entity means an independent certifying organization meeting the requirements in appendix A of this part or an Agreement State meeting the requirements in appendix A, Parts II and III of this part.

Collimator means a radiation shield that is placed on the end of the guide tube or directly onto a radiographic exposure device to restrict the size of the radiation beam when the sealed source is cranked into position to make a radiographic exposure.

Control (drive) cable means the cable that is connected to the source assembly and used to drive the source to and from the exposure location.

Control drive mechanism means a device that enables the source assembly to be moved to and from the exposure device.

Control tube means a protective sheath for guiding the control cable. The control tube connects the control drive mechanism to the radiographic exposure device.

Exposure head means a device that locates the gamma radiography sealed source in the selected working position. (An exposure head is also known as a source stop.)

Field station means a facility where licensed material may be stored or used and from which equipment is dispatched.

Gray means the SI unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of 1 Joule/kilogram. It is also equal to 100 rads.

Guide tube (Projection sheath) means a flexible or rigid tube (i.e., "J" tube) for guiding the source assembly and the attached control cable from the exposure device to the exposure head. The guide tube may also include the connections necessary for attachment to the exposure device and to the exposure head.

Hands-on experience means experience in all of those areas considered to be directly involved in the radiography process.

Independent certifying organization means an independent organization that meets all of the criteria of Appendix A to this part.

Industrial radiography (radiography) means an examination of the structure of materials by nondestructive methods, utilizing ionizing radiation to make radiographic images.

Lay-barge radiography means industrial radiography performed on any water vessel used for laying pipe.

Offshore platform radiography means industrial radiography conducted from a platform over a body of water.

Permanent radiographic installation means an enclosed shielded room, cell, or vault, not located at a temporary jobsite, in which radiography is performed.

Practical Examination means a demonstration through practical application of the safety rules and principles in industrial radiography including use of all appropriate equipment and procedures.

Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography means an individual with the responsibility for the overall radiation safety program on behalf of the licensee and who meets the requirements of § 34.42.

Radiographer means any individual who performs or who, in attendance at the site where the sealed source or sources are being used, personally supervises industrial radiographic operations and who is responsible to the licensee for assuring compliance with the requirements of the Commission's regulations and the conditions of the license.

Radiographer certification means written approval received from a certifying entity stating that an individual has satisfactorily met certain established radiation safety, testing, and experience criteria.

Radiographer's assistant means any individual who under the direct supervision of a radiographer, uses radiographic exposure devices, sealed sources or related handling tools, or radiation survey instruments in industrial radiography.

Radiographic exposure device (also called a camera, or a projector) means any instrument containing a sealed source fastened or contained therein, in which the sealed source or shielding thereof may be moved, or otherwise changed, from a shielded to unshielded position for purposes of making a radiographic exposure.

Radiographic operations means all activities associated with the presence of radioactive sources in a radiographic exposure device during use of the device or transport (except when being transported by a common or contract transport), to include surveys to confirm the adequacy of boundaries, setting up equipment and any activity inside restricted area boundaries.

S-tube means a tube through which the radioactive source travels when inside a radiographic exposure device.

Sealed source means any byproduct material that is encased in a capsule designed to prevent leakage or escape of the byproduct material.

Shielded position means the location within the radiographic exposure device or source changer where the sealed source is secured and restricted from movement.

Sievert means the SI unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in sieverts is equal to the absorbed dose in grays multiplied by the quality factor (1 Sv = 100 rems).

Source assembly means an assembly that consists of the sealed source and a connector that attaches the source to the control cable. The source assembly may also include a stop ball used to secure the source in the shielded position.

Source changer means a device designed and used for replacement of sealed sources in radiographic exposure devices, including those also used for transporting and storage of sealed sources.

Storage area means any location, facility, or vehicle which is used to store or to secure a radiographic exposure device, a storage container, or a sealed source when it is not in use and which is locked or has a physical barrier to prevent accidental exposure, tampering with, or unauthorized removal of the device, container, or source.

Storage container means a container in which sealed sources are secured and stored.

Temporary jobsite means a location where radiographic operations are conducted and where licensed material may be stored other than those location(s) of use authorized on the license.

Underwater radiography means industrial radiography performed when the radiographic exposure device and/or related equipment are beneath the surface of the water.

Page Last Reviewed/Updated Thursday, July 10, 2014