An Emergency Classification is one of a set of names or titles established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for grouping off-normal events or conditions according to (1) potential or actual effects or consequences, and (2) resulting onsite and offsite response actions. The emergency classification levels, in ascending order of severity, are Notification of Unusual Event (NOUE), Alert, Site Area Emergency (SAE), and General Emergency (GE). Both nuclear power plants and research and test reactors use these emergency classification as defined below. The vast majority of events reported to the NRC are routine in nature and do not require activation of our incident response program. For information on how we respond to an event that could threaten public health and safety, see How We Respond To an Emergency.
Notification of Unusual Event (NOUE) – Events are in progress or have occurred which indicate a potential degradation of the level of safety of the plant or indicate a security threat to facility protection has been initiated. No releases of radioactive material requiring offsite response or monitoring are expected unless further degradation of safety systems occurs. [Note: This term is sometimes shortened to Unusual Event (UE). The terms Notification of Unusual Event, NOUE and Unusual Event are used interchangeably.]
Purpose: The purpose of this classification is to assure that the first step in future response has been carried out, to bring the operations staff to a state of readiness, and to provide systematic handling of unusual event information and decision-making.
Alert – Events are in progress or have occurred which involve an actual or potential substantial degradation of the level of safety of the plant or a security event that involves probable life threatening risk to site personnel or damage to site equipment because of HOSTILE ACTION. Any releases are expected to be limited to small fractions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protective action guides (PAGs).
Purpose: The purpose of this classification is to assure that emergency personnel are readily available to respond if the situation becomes more serious or to perform confirmatory radiation monitoring if required, and provide offsite authorities current information on plant status and parameters.
Site Area Emergency (SAE) – Events are in progress or have occurred which involve actual or likely major failures of plant functions needed for protection of the public or hostile action that results in intentional damage or malicious acts; 1) toward site personnel or equipment that could lead to the likely failure of or; 2) that prevent effective access to, equipment needed for the protection of the public. Any releases are not expected to result in exposure levels which exceed EPA PAG exposure levels beyond the site boundary.
General Emergency – Events are in progress or have occurred which involve actual or imminent substantial core degradation or melting with potential for loss of containment integrity or hostile action that results in an actual loss of physical control of the facility. Releases can be reasonably expected to exceed EPA PAG exposure levels offsite for more than the immediate site area.
Purpose: The purpose of the Site Area Emergency declaration is to assure that emergency response centers are staffed, to assure that monitoring teams are dispatched, to assure that personnel required for evacuation of near-site areas are at duty stations if the situation becomes more serious, to provide consultation with offsite authorities, and to provide updates to the public through government authorities.
Purpose: The purpose of the General Emergency declaration is to initiate predetermined protective actions for the public, to provide continuous assessment of information from the licensee and offsite organizational measurements, to initiate additional measures as indicated by actual or potential releases, to provide consultation with offsite authorities, and to provide updates for the public through government authorities.
The following are emergency classifications for nuclear materials and fuel cycle facility licensees:
Alert - Events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a release of radioactive material[s], but the release is not expected to require a response by an offsite response organization to protect people offsite.
Site Area Emergency - Events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a significant release of radioactive material[s], and the release could require a response by offsite response organizations to protect people offsite.