Radiation Dose Estimates for Radiopharmaceuticals (NUREG/CR-6345)
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Manuscript Completed: April 1996
Date Published: April 1996
M.G. Stabin, J.B. Stubbs, R.E. Toohey
Radiation Internal Dose Information Center
Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117
D. Howe, NRC Project Manager
Division of Industrial and Medical Nuclear Safety
Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Washington, DC 20555-0001
Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division
Office of Health and Environmental Research
Office of Energy Research
U.S. Department of Energy
Washington, DC 20585
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
Food and Drug Administration
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Rockville, MD 20857
NRC Job Code L1699
Tables of radiation dose estimates based on the Cristy-Eckerman adult male phantom are provided for a number of radiopharmaceuticals commonly used in nuclear medicine. Radiation dose estimates are listed for all major source organs, and several other organs of interest. The dose estimates were calculated using the MIRD Technique as implemented in the MIRDOSE3 computer code, developed by Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Internal Dose Information Center. In this code, residence times for source organs are used with decay data from the MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes to produce estimates of radiation dose to organs of standardized phantoms representing individuals of different ages.
The adult male phantom of the Cristy-Eckerman phantom series is different from the MIRD 5, or "Reference Man" phantom (Snyder et al., 1969) in several aspects, the most important of which is the difference in the masses and absorbed fractions for the active (red) marrow. The absorbed fractions for low energy photons striking the marrow are also different. Other minor differences exist, but are not likely to significantly affect dose estimates calculated with the two phantoms. Assumptions which support each of the dose estimates appears at the bottom of the table of estimates for a given radiopharmaceutical.
In most cases, the model kinetics or organ residence times are explicitly given. The results presented here can easily be extended to include other radiopharmaceuticals or phantoms.