Backgrounder on Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel
What is Spent Nuclear Fuel?
Spent nuclear fuel refers to the bundles of uranium pellets encased in metal rods that have been used to power a nuclear reactor. Nuclear fuel loses efficiency over time and becomes less able to keep a nuclear reaction going. Every so often, about one-third of the fuel in a reactor must be replaced. The nuclear reaction is stopped before the spent fuel is removed. But spent fuel still produces a lot of radiation and heat that must be managed to protect workers, the environment and the public.
How is spent nuclear fuel managed?
Pool Storage: Every reactor site has at least one spent fuel pool into which fuel is placed for storage when it is removed from the reactor. Spent fuel pools:
Dry cask storage: The NRC also allows nuclear power plant licensees to store their spent fuel on-site in NRC-approved dry storage casks. These casks:
These types of spent fuel storage may continue at reactor sites after a site is decommissioned, or even after permanent repository or centralized interim storage facility is available.
What makes spent fuel storage safe?
NRC regulations The NRC sets strict requirements for safe spent fuel storage. Developed through a public process, they provide a sound technical basis for protecting public health and safety and the environment. Reactor licensees and equipment vendors provide detailed descriptions of pool storage racks and dry casks, including extensive tests and analyses to show the equipment and its operation meet NRC requirements. The NRC carefully reviews these submittals. To obtain NRC approval, the designs must:
Inspections, monitoring, testing: NRC inspectors ensure that spent fuel is stored safely by:
Power reactors must limit radiation doses to workers and the public, including at spent fuel pools and cask storage facilities. The facilities are under constant monitoring and surveillance.
The NRC also performs periodic testing and analyses that have shown:
- Spent fuel and cask components perform as predicted even after years of dry storage.
- Potential health risks from loading and storing spent fuel in dry casks are very small.
- No known radiation releases have affected the public since casks were first loaded in 1986.
How do NRC regulations evolve to address new information?
Fukushima response The NRC studied the effects of the March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami at Japan’s Fukushima plant. The staff looked at how the spent fuel pool at a U.S. reactor similar to Fukushima might respond to an earthquake far more powerful than the one that struck Japan. In addition, the NRC ordered licensees to:
- Install additional instruments to monitor water levels in the pool.
- Develop ways to easily maintain or restore spent fuel pool cooling in an emergency.
Post 9/11 security requirements While there have been no known or suspected attempts to sabotage spent fuel storage facilities, the NRC upgraded protection requirements after Sept. 11, 2001. Licensees must meet those requirements, which include the ability to detect and stop an intrusion.