Subpart D--Operation of Irradiators
§ 36.51 Training.
(a) Before an individual is permitted to operate an irradiator without a supervisor present, the individual must be instructed in:
(1) The fundamentals of radiation protection applied to irradiators (including the differences between external radiation and radioactive contamination, units of radiation dose, NRC dose limits, why large radiation doses must be avoided, how shielding and access controls prevent large doses, how an irradiator is designed to prevent contamination, the proper use of survey meters and personnel dosimeters, other radiation safety features of an irradiator, and the basic function of the irradiator);
(2) The requirements of parts 19 and 36 of NRC regulations that are relevant to the irradiator;
(3) The operation of the irradiator;
(4) Those operating and emergency procedures listed in § 36.53 that the individual is responsible for performing; and
(5) Case histories of accidents or problems involving irradiators.
(b) Before an individual is permitted to operate an irradiator without a supervisor present, the individual shall pass a written test on the instruction received consisting primarily of questions based on the licensee's operating and emergency procedures that the individual is responsible for performing and other operations necessary to safely operate the irradiator without supervision.
(c) Before an individual is permitted to operate an irradiator without a supervisor present, the individual must have received on-the-job training or simulator training in the use of the irradiator as described in the license application. The individual shall also demonstrate the ability to perform those portions of the operating and emergency procedures that he or she is to perform.
(d) The licensee shall conduct safety reviews for irradiator operators at least annually. The licensee shall give each operator a brief written test on the information. Each safety review must include, to the extent appropriate, each of the following--
(1) Changes in operating and emergency procedures since the last review, if any;
(2) Changes in regulations and license conditions since the last review, if any;
(3) Reports on recent accidents, mistakes, or problems that have occurred at irradiators, if any;
(4) Relevant results of inspections of operator safety performance;
(5) Relevant results of the facility's inspection and maintenance checks; and
(6) A drill to practice an emergency or abnormal event procedure.
(e) The licensee shall evaluate the safety performance of each irradiator operator at least annually to ensure that regulations, license conditions, and operating and emergency procedures are followed. The licensee shall discuss the results of the evaluation with the operator and shall instruct the operator on how to correct any mistakes or deficiencies observed.
(f) Individuals who will be permitted unescorted access to the radiation room of the irradiator or the area around the pool of an underwater irradiator, but who have not received the training required for operators and the radiation safety officer, shall be instructed and tested in any precautions they should take to avoid radiation exposure, any procedures or parts of procedures listed in § 36.53 that they are expected to perform or comply with, and their proper response to alarms required in this part. Tests may be oral.
(g) Individuals who must be prepared to respond to alarms required by §§ 36.23(b), 36.23(i), 36.27(a), 36.29(a), 36.29(b), and 36.59(b) shall be trained and tested on how to respond. Each individual shall be retested at least once a year. Tests may be oral.